Essential differences and similarities between trait and. Adam ozimek i m an economist at moodys analytics, where i cover labor markets and. Trait theory seeks to determine personal characteristics of effective leaders. The theory is primarily attributed to the scottish philosopher and essayist.
These theories assume that great leaders are born, not made, and are destined to become leaders when needed. Trait theory of leadership the trait model of leadership is based on the characteristics of many leaders both successful and unsuccessful and is used to predict leadership effectiveness. A key theme that sociology, anthropology and other social sciences share with history is the question of structure versus agency. A leader is a hero who accomplishes goals against all odds for his followers. Review chapter 2 in your course text, the art of leadership, and focus on the sections on trait theory, behavior theory, contingency theory, and the differences between transformational and transactional leaders. Individuals are born either with or without the necessary traits for leadership trait theories of leadership sought personality, social, physical or intellectual traits that differentiate leaders from non leaders trait view has little analytical or predictive value technical, conceptual and human skills katz 1974. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioural characteristics shared by leaders. The early sociologist herbert spencer directly critiqued the great man theory. Trait theory of leadership believes that leaders have certain traits that make them a good leader. Great man theory of leadership management study guide.
Those who support the theory say leaders are born with the attributes necessary to set them apart from those around them and that these traits enable them to assume roles of authority and power. Starting point for the understanding of which human traits make great leaders. The trait theory of leadership states that there are certain identifiable qualities or characteristics that are unique to leaders and those good leaders possess such qualities to some extent. People today pick up aspects of his leadership and use it in a new theory known as trait theory. The theory y manager emphasizes guidance rather than control, development vs. The trait and behavior leadership theories have several major similarities and a few. It points out that the personal traits or personal characteristics of a person make him an effective or successful leader. We see other examples of the assertion that traits are paramount, if not critical, to qualify a person to be a leader, a prominent example being the boy scouts. A modification of the great man theory is the trait theory which argues that leadership qualities or traits can be acquired. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. Trait theory relies on the premise that certain traits make up a good leader without getting into the specifics of the situation or the followers. The great man theory suggests that a successful leader is born, not made. This ideology is a more mederate and balanced approach to both theories.
Perhaps, even if great man theory was named great man woman theory i still might not have been drawn to leadercentric models of leadership. Less a theory than a statement of faith, the great man theory does not fit into the rigorous scholarly theory and research that makes up the contemporary canon of leadership discourse. Great man theory if everyone believed in only the great man theory, leadership classes would not be provided. Understanding the trait theory of leadership verywell mind. The great man theory narrates the influence of great men on history. Gender issues were not on the table when the great man theory was proposed. Trait theory, similar to great man theory, is based on the assumption that people inherit or acquire certain qualities, characteristics, and traits that enable them to. This is because the theory considers that only great leaders are born rather than made. The great man theory was established in the 19th century and suggests that great leaders are born, not made and have certain traits not found. The great man theory suggests that leaders are born, not made. Foley the great man theory presented by james buck 3614 summary the great man theory was a popular 19th century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of great men, or heroes.
A modification of the great man theory is the trait theory which argues that leadership qualities or traits. Great leaders can arise when the need for them is great. Trait theory and behaviorism are two similar approaches to these questions. So this theory of history was popularized in the 19th century by thomas carlyle. The great man thesis is an approach which strongly emphasizes a specific form of agency, in contrast with more structural approaches. Furthermore, the theory contends that these traits remain stable over time and across different groups. It assumes that leaders must possess general traits or personal features that they get by born and common to all and create them better matched to leadership. Pros and cons of trait theory and great man theory. However, trait theory, like great man theory, has tended to focus on historical highstatus leaders, and again risks being unrepresentative of leadership in healthcare. Leadership in management and the great man theory essay. Trait theory focuses on the leader and not the followers or situations. The difference between this theory and the modern form of great man theory is that leaders are formed primarily around their physical makeup, such as height or strength.
The theory identifies the specific personality traits that distinguish leaders from. One can question the originality of the basic trait theory, as it is similar to the great man theory, only the trait theory enumerates specific qualities a leader should possess. In trait theory of leadership just tried to find traits of wellknown. This implies that people who do not possess the right traits and attributes will never be able to become a leader. Great leaders are heroes, according to this theory. Trait theory of leadership is one of the first academic theories of leadership and attempts to answer why some people are good leaders and others are not. According to the theory, leadership calls for certain qualities like charm, persuasiveness, commanding personality, high degree of intuition, judgment, courage. While great man theory was worthy of note, i prefer trait theory. This line of research emerged as one of the earliest types of investigations into the nature of effective leadership and is tied to the great man theory of. These include the great man theory, big bang theory, trait theory, style theory, situational or contingency theory, transformational leadership, transactional leadership, authentic leadership, breakthrough leadership and servant leadership. The trait theorists identified a long list of qualities which leaders possess.
Trait theory, similar to great man theory, is based on the assumption that people inherit or acquire certain qualities, characteristics, and traits that enable them to be better suited to lead. Earlier developed theories of leadership such as the great man theory and the trait theory give more weight to human nature, which i believe to be the root of. This theory, though, is outdated and was based only on powerful men. He was one among the significant social commentators of this time and has presented many lectures during his lifetime.
Several academics believe that potential leaders can be spotted by studying the personality traits of the individual and matching them to the characteristics of actual leaders. The main reason of the impact by great men on the history, as per the concepts presented in the theory, is due to personal traits of the leaders such as wisdom, passion, charisma, eloquence, competence and trust etc. Charles bird examined twenty lists of traits attributed to. Trait theory at the beginning of the twentieth century, the great man theory transitioned into the trait theory. The term great man reflects an assumption of these early theories that leadership was a predominantly male quality, especially in the domains of political and military leadership. Thus, it suggests that all great leaders share these. The great man theory of leadership is one of the earliest theories to. The idea is that some people are naturally better leaders and posess these traits in different quantities. This line of research emerged as one of the earliest types of investigations into the nature of effective leadership and is tied to the great man theory of leadership. The resulting lists of traits are then compared to those of potential leaders to assess their likelihood of success or failure. Great man theory or great man of leadership theory, was established on 19th century by thomas carlyle, scottish philosopher, historian, satirical writer and essayist. Leadership theories and styles clinical leadership in. The great man theory was originally proposed by thomas carlyle. Trait theory vs process theory early ideas about leadership, described by the great man theory, focused on the innate qualities of individuals.
For that, you can probably credit thomas carlyle, the 1840sera scottish writer, philosopher and historian. These theories often portrayed great leaders as heroic, mythical, and uniquely destined to rise to leadership when their skills were needed. The following list is only illustrative and not exhaustive. Review chapter 1 in your course text, the art of leadership, and pay particular attention to the discussion of the great man theory. Trait theory of leadership is often tied to the great man theory of leadership, which was first proposed by thomas carlyle. Understand trait theory of leadership is and how you can. The great man theory is a 19thcentury idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of great men, or heroes. Carlyle, freud, and the great man theory more fully. On the other hand, because people posses different traits, it was impossible for the great man theory supporters to establish an universal model of the great man. In the 1950s, leadership theory focused on the situational interaction of traits, then in the 1970s personality and behaviour dominated. Trait theories are similar to great man theories in some ways. The great man theory of leadership states that some people are born with the necessary attributes that set them apart from others and that these traits are responsible for their assuming positions of power and authority. He formulated the great man theory in his book heroes, heroworship and the heroic in history, writing that the history of the world is but the biography of great men. And a good leader was made out of hereditary traits.
Leadership theories part 2 trait, great man theory session 15 management lessonsdrkirti jainani duration. The problem with trait theory is that it is so broad. In fact the theory can be traced back to the nineteenth century, whereby a man called thomas carlyle used such understanding to identify the talents, skills and characteristics of men who. This differs by focussing on what leaders actually do. Nurture in business authoritative leadership styles task vs. Trait theory of leadership organization and administration in. The great man or trait theory believes that, leaders are exceptional charismatic people, born with innate qualities and influences, to lead. Theory y theory y manager believes the work itself is motivating and people really want to do a good job. Carlyle believed that history is shaped by extraordinary leaders, and that the ability to lead was something you inherited at birth and not something that could be developed k. Behavioural theory analysis scenarios scenarios the trait theory the reason we.
Most researchers were also male, and concerns about androcentric bias were a long way from being. The great man theory leadership development for higher. Great man theory and trait theory of leadership your article library. Compare similarities and differences the two leadership. Carlyle believed that heroic, towering individuals shape. This term great man was used because leaders were only men and leadership was a predominantly male quality, especially in terms of military leadership wheeler, 2000. Personality traits of successful leaders that have been identified in traits theory of leadership show no consistent pattern. Trait theory, similar to great man theory, is based on the assumption that people. Churchill and eisenhower in the successful planning and supervision of the invasion of france and germany during 194445 world war is classic example. Praizion media specializes in project management education and professional development.
Certainly the evolution of trait theory began with a flawed premise what traits were necessary to be a great leader by the very nature of the pool of people being studied. You make some great points regarding the use of trait theory when looked at from historical perspective, and also when issues of gender stereotyping are at work. If leadership was simply an inborn quality, then all people who possess the necessary traits. The great man theory was established in the 19th century and suggests that great leaders are born, not made and have certain traits not found in all people. There leadership capabilities come out when the need calls for it. This theory is still believed by a lot of people because we have seen families full of great leaders for example the kennedys and the bush generation. Despite, the previous t heories of leadership focused on behaviors and characteristics of effective leaders.
One of the key problems with the great man theory of leadership is that not all people who possess the socalled natural leadership qualities actually become great leaders. The great man theory was basically a belief that leaders are born. Individuals are born with certain traits or characteristics, and these. Most leaders were male and the thought of a great woman was generally in areas other than leadership. Trait theory of leadership is often tied to the great man theory of leadership. This theory focuses on the traits skills great leaders posess and how to teach these attributes to others. The great man theory was similar to charles darwins theory of survival of the fittest. On the other hand, the behavioral theory of leadership believes that leaders behave in one of.
What is the name of the theory opposite to the great man. The trait theory of leadership focuses on identifying different personality traits and characteristics that are linked to successful leadership across a variety of situations. But i think the great man theory of trumpism is a real possibility we have to consider. Similar to the great man theory, trait theory suggests that the characteristics or the personality of a person may make them an effective leader. These are similar in some ways to great man theories. In the 1960s the focus of leadership theory switched from trait theory to behavioural theory. This is the great man theory of leadership which asserts that leaders in general and great leaders in particular are born and not made.430 766 1098 384 751 956 1107 398 688 958 1274 240 337 308 1132 881 932 937 1183 720 123 592 672 1464 1213 240 485 202 1387 943 768 1442 950 1039 694 482 467 1222 347 1185 1204 993